Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Project A Natural Disaster And Disaster Recovery Plan

In this case assignment I am to research a natural disaster, discuss if the local government has made disaster recovery plans and whether or how the plan has been executed. Whether the plan was effective, and how it can be improved. I am also to describe the natural disaster, when, where, how, and what happened. Before we can understand the what, we need to make sure we understand the why and how. We will first discuss the disaster recovery plan, what is it?. Disaster recovery plan defines how an organization will deal with a possible disasters whether is natural or man-made. A disaster is just an event that makes the business process of normal functions impossible or challenging. A disaster recovery plan comprises of the protections taken so that the effects of a disaster will be mitigated and the organization will be able to continue or rapidly resume their normal operation roles. Normally, disaster recovery planning includes an analysis or risk assessment of the organizations processes and stability needs; it may also consist a major focus on disaster prevention. Disaster recovery plan in the United States usually has been controlled by State and local governments, with the Federal government as a supporting role. While we remain truthful to the basic constitutional principle, we must also accept that events such as hurricane Katrina and the terrorist attacks of 9/11, require the government, both local and State to tailor the applicati on of these principles to theShow MoreRelatedDisaster Recovery For A Business1190 Words   |  5 PagesDisaster recovery for a business goes further than backing up some tapes or disks and storing them in an off-site storage facility. Disaster recovery also involves making the business whole again, from retrieving the data backups after the disaster to restoring the data on the system, and opening the doors for business again with minimal loss of time, money, and reputation. This paper discusses the implications of a non-existent or inadequate plan for disaster recovery, with a particular focusRead MoreDisaster Recovery1475 Words   |  6 PagesMedia Madness Disaster Recovery Plan Overview By Loki Consulting, Inc. Iris Morgan Heather German Gwen Northrup EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Loki Consulting, Inc. was established in 1997 as a result of Hurricane Fran. Many businesses were devastated by the storm due to the absence of a disaster recovery plan. Realizing the need for disaster recovery consultation, Loki Consulting, Inc. was created to provide businesses with expert knowledge on implementing a critical component of any organizationRead MoreDelimitations And Complications Of Management In The Server System1188 Words   |  5 Pagesupdates will occur. ï‚ § In the current climate, technology updates so quickly, it threatens to overcome our ability to produce viable plans to utilize that technology. ï‚ § As new technology emerges, organizational staff will develop plans to implement that technology. When organizational leadership determines that new technology should be implemented, policies and plans should be developed to meet those requirements. 6. Delimitations a) The process of delimitation will take place, within this studyRead MoreDisaster Characteristics And Management Stages Essay1198 Words   |  5 PagesDisaster Characteristics and Management Stages A disaster is defined as a natural or man-made incident in which the degree of destruction, death or injury overwhelms the community, exhausts the available resources and decreases the community’s ability to respond (Nies McEwen, 2015). The frequency of natural disasters in on the rise. Studies show that since the 1970’s, floods, storms, droughts and heatwaves have increased five-fold (Unesco, 2011). Many experts point to climate change as the causeRead MoreCase Study : Nissan Motor Company Ltd1401 Words   |  6 Pagesoperations management functions to provide products and generate value for its customers and achieve a competitive advantage, and will compare and contrast service operations and manufacturing operations. This paper will also compare and contrast the project management techniques of PERT and CPM at Nissan, explain the steps used to develop a forecasting system, and list the major categories of supply chain risk. Operations management is the set of activities that creates value in the form of goodsRead MoreThe Best Shot At Success During A Disaster869 Words   |  4 Pagesand making the business continuity process predictable. This enables business continuity plans created in one area of the organization to be easily reused elsewhere which is consider to be flexible. To give your organization the best shot at success during a disaster, you need to put a current, tested plan in the hands of all personnel responsible for carrying out any part of that plan. The lack of a plan doesn t just mean your organization will take longer than necessary to recover from an eventRead MoreDisaster Essay1644 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"DISASTERS CREATES OPPURTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT† DISASTER: Disaster can be defined as â€Å"The occurrence of a sudden or major misfortune which disrupts the basic fabric and normal functioning of a society, or community.† â€Å"An event or series of events which gives rise to casualties and/or damage or loss of property, infrastructure, essential services or means of livelihood on a scale which is beyond the normal capacity of the affected community’s ability to cope with out aid.† According to UNISDRRead MoreBusiness Continuity Plan For A Business1425 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Continuity Plan (BCP) is made in order to continue business operation when the business site is adversely affected by some natural calamities like flood, storm, earthquake, fire, communication failure or by some terrorist attacks and crimes. This plan explains the measures taken by the organization to recover its business operation or operation transferred to another business site. Business continuity plans are made to recover from both short term and long term disasters. Plan Purpose: The purposeRead MoreEssay about Knoxville, Tennessee Emergency Operations Plan989 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction An emergency operations plan for the community in which we live is a document of great importance to each of us whether we know it or not. This paper examines the emergency action plan for Knoxville, Tennessee. In the course of the examination, it will compare and analyze the plan for Knoxville with the standards set forth in the textbook for this course along with other recognized sources in the field of emergency management. Knoxville, Tennessee With a population of nearly oneRead MoreBusiness Continuity Planning And Disaster Recovery1359 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness continuity Planning and Disaster recovery: For any Organization to survive on log run, executives must give priority to Disaster recovery (DR) and Business continuity (BC) plan during budget allocations and never see a payback from those investments. Disasters won t happen daily, they rarely occur. But when it happens and if the company doesn t have a Plan or mechanism to fast recover, then that company loses its customer to its competitors. Business continuity plan includes steps company must

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

John Wright Mills And The Sociological Imagination Essay

To be quite frank, I always thought I was ordinary. I never really put much thought, nor understood the deeper meaning as to why I have always acted a certain way, talked a certain way, or even made choices for a certain reason. Of course I have always known that these could be attributed to the way I was socialized as a child, but I never thought deeper into how my actions, beliefs, and values played into this bigger picture of society. To this day, the biggest decision I have ever made in my life has been deciding to go to university, but I never really dwelled on the concept of â€Å"Why?† C. Wright Mills wrote of a concept called the â€Å"sociological imagination.† Sociological imagination is our way of understanding the relationship between ourselves and society by looking at society and our individual lives through different lenses (1959). For instance, take an upper class man who has anything his heart could ever desire, he sees the world through a brightly coloured lens, but if this man takes a minute to step out of his picture perfect life, he can contemplate and imagine how others may live. He may think of an unemployed man who cannot enjoy life’s finer things. This is sociological imagination, the ability to see how, on the small, individual scale, we interact with society and how others also interact within this same society. As Mills explains, â€Å"The sociological imagination enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society,†Show MoreRelatedSociology and Sociological Imagination978 Words   |à ‚  4 PagesSociology and Sociological imagination Sociology is the scientific study of human behavior in a social context that looks the values, attitudes and composition of a given society. Sociology looks at the religious believes, economic aspects, daily activities and political arrangements interact to build a society (Dillon, 2009). The examination of people considering the social forces shaping their attitude and behavior is what C. Wright Mills referred to as sociological imagination (Dillon, 2009)Read MoreDeveloping Sociological Imagination from an Interactionist Perspective560 Words   |  2 Pagesï » ¿ What is involved in developing sociological imagination from interactionist perspective? The concept of sociological imagination was developed by C. Wright Mills who defined it as an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past (Schaefer 5). Sociological imagination allows us to look at cultural activities and events from a larger perspective, placing them in a proper context. For example, it is considered normal in the United StatesRead MoreThe Other Wes Moore1029 Words   |  5 Pagesmake. The author Wes Moore, born to a poor family, struggled academically and was sent to a military school. While there, he was forced to adjust to the change of environment. In the end, the author Wes Moore grew up to be a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of John Hopkins, a Rhodes Scholar, a veteran, a business leader, and a White House Fellow while he namesake did the complete opposite. The other Wes Moore, who ended up in prison for the rest of his life, took a turn for the worst despite sharing a similarRead MoreSociology Essay1116 Word s   |  5 Pagesbe studied using sociological imagination, â€Å"the ability to look beyond the individual as the cause for success and failure (micro, small scale) and see how one’s society influences the outcome (macro, large scale).† Developing a sociological imagination, American sociologists C. Wright Mills (1916-1962) says, â€Å"helps you understand your place in a complex world.† Furthermore, he adds that, â€Å"we must grasp both the history and the biography of the situation to generate this imagination.† This comprehensionRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination By C. Wright Mills Essay1970 Words   |  8 Pagesmay not be within our control, and it takes a toll on our lives. As a person experiences something that is out of their control, it is related back to social forces; this is what the sociological imagination is. C. Wright Mills, author of â€Å"The Sociological Imagination†, explains how the sociological imagination plays a part in human development, and how certain social forces affecting the lives of those who are constantly facing hardships. He explains that the problems that we face as human beingsRead MoreSociological And Common Sense Understanding1341 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction to Sociology Throughout this essay, I will explain the distinction between sociological and common sense understanding, highlight the differences between sociology and other social sciences, and evaluate two sociological perspectives – Marxism and feminism. Sociology is the scientific study of human society. It examines the development of social structures, and the interaction between these structures and human behaviour. Sociologists aim to provide tools of understanding the processRead MoreThe Functionalist View of Stratification Essay examples1819 Words   |  8 PagesFunctionalism is a sociological perspective that focuses on the ways in which a complex pattern of social structures and arrangements contributes to social order. It was designed to carry out the essential functions of human life. A flaw in functionalist perspective is that we have rarely seen anything approaching equilibrium in human society. Ultimately, change is seen as a dysfunction within this school of thought. Two prominent theorists within the functionalist school of thought were EmileRead MoreEssay on Sociology 111 Quiz 13498 Words   |  14 PagesThe concept used to describe opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called ________. A. the sociological imagination Question 4 of 25 1.0 Points Of the following influences, the one that C. Wright Mills most attributed to being the one that sociologists would use to explain individual behavior is ________. C. external influences Question 5 of 25 1.0 Points When sociologistsRead Morecheat sheet1448 Words   |  6 Pages1. The sociological perspective, as a way of thinking about the world, includes the sociological imagination from C. Wright Mills, the beginner’s mind from Bernard McGrane, and the idea of culture shock from anthropology. Explain what all three of these concepts have in common. Response: All three of these concepts have in common are the idea of breaking down social barriers to gain a different perspective on culture people and behaviors. When a person is in a new area where the culture is differentRead MorePopular Culture Is A Direct Reflection Of Social Change1549 Words   |  7 Pages        Ã‚   Jenna Los Sociology 121 Professor Knight Johnson September 28, 2015 â€Å"Popular culture is a direct reflection of social change, having the ability to alter, destroy, or praise social constructions. â€Å"(John Podhoretz) As suggested in the introductory quote, popular culture is powerful, characterized by the capability to heavily influence society. Throughout the past century, popular culture in the form of social media has been blamed for promoting negative social constructions

Sunday, December 8, 2019

1.02 Excursiones - Miami free essay sample

1. 02 Excursiones Miami| Part I (6 points) Choose ONE of the links from the first page of this lesson. Then answer the following questions in complete English sentences: A. Cuban food 1. What are some of the typical Cuban foods? Some typical Cuban food s are tostadas and cafe con leche, empanadas, cuban sandwiches, pan con bistec, croquetas, and pastelitos 2. Compare and contrast their cuisine to what you generally eat. I usually drink regular coffee whereas Cubans have cafe con leche. Also, Cubans use vegetables such as yuca, malanga, and boniato, while I eat corn and potatoes. They usually have a meat, chicken or fish dinner which is usually what I eat as well. Also, I eat croquetas and empanadas sometimes. 3. What Cuban food have you tried before? Did you like it? If you have not tried any, what do you think you’d like and why? I have had croqueta’s, yucca, pan con bistec, empanadas, media noches, flan and pastelitos and I liked all of them. We will write a custom essay sample on 1.02 Excursiones Miami or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Cuban food is delicious. B. Cuban pastime 1. What is the favorite Cuban pastime mentioned in this link? What other game is played? The favorite Cuban pastime is dominoes. They also play chess. 2. Where is Domino Park located? Domino Park is located in Little Havana 3. What games do you and your friends typically play? I usually play Pictionary, Monopoly, or video games like Call of Duty: Black Ops. C. Jai-alai (a sport that originated in Spain) 1. What is jai-alai? To which sports is it similar? Jai-alai is a sport which is similar to lacrosse. 2. In what part of Spain did jai-alai originate? What did the players use for courts? Jai-alai originated in the Basque country of Northern Spain. Players used church walls as their courts. 3. Have you ever seen it played? Does this sport interest you? Why or why not? No I have never seen it played, but it would probably interest me because I like lacrosse and it sounds interesting. D. Freedom Tower 1. What is the Freedom Tower? Why can it be compared to Ellis Island? It is a tower where many immigrant had there naturalization papers signed. It can be compared to Ellis Island because it is a place that stands for the American Dream and for freedom. 2. What does freedom mean to you? To me, freedom means to be able to express yourself without limitations. You are free when you have the ability to open your mind up to all of life’s wonders. Part II (14 points) After viewing the translator presentation, include your answers to these questions for your 1. 02 assignment. A translator can be online or someone you know who is a native speaker. 1. What are some of the reasons a translator should not be used? A translator should not be used because the translator does not include grammar and it can confuse the word with another meaning. Also, the context of the word may be different than the translator gives. 2. Why would using an online translator or native speaker be considered cheating? It would be considered cheating because it is the easy way out and it figures out your work for you. 3. When does working with someone on an assignment or getting help affect the integrity of your work? It affects the integrity of your work when you are doing absolutely nothing and are putting someone else hard work under your name; it doesn’t belong to you anymore.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Tactics and Maneuvers of Hannibal Essay Example

Tactics and Maneuvers of Hannibal Essay The banks of Lake Trasimene were glistening in blood as the last Roman soldier was slain. The army of Carthage won yet another victory against the Republic of Rome. Hannibal’s tactics and maneuvers led to the death of 15,000 Roman soldiers because of a surprise attack out maneuvering the Roman army. This was the battle of Lake Trasimene, during the First Punic War in 217BC, Hannibal’s army had the opportunity to lay siege to Rome after decimating one of the immense forces of the Republic of Rome. Standing between Lake Trasimene and the city of Rome was only a two-day, 80 mile, march to the gates. Hannibal could have given the orders to march on the Capitol, but stopped short and never attempted an attack. Scholars have assumed that Hannibal did not have the siege equipment, reinforcements or even the supplies to begin his march. Some have thought, quite possibly, he may not have had the desire or the ability to destroy Rome at the time. If Hannibal had the siege equipme nt to storm the wall, reinforcements to outnumber the Roman guards, and the overall attack strength to take Rome by sheer force. Then we would have had a change in our history, and the fall of Rome would have come much earlier than history remembers. Is it possible Hannibal could have overcome these obstacles to defeat Rome and save Carthage for its future demise? Or, was the fall of Carthage ultimately inevitable? The first thing Hannibal needed to sack the Republic of Rome was siege equipment. Siege equipment has been most notably essential to breaking through the enemy walls and barriers in ancient history. Roman fortifications were well supported and strengthened. Rome’s walls were built over sixty feet high and surrounded the city by twelve miles (Toy chapter 4). Towers were placed roughly every one hundred feet, along with eighteen gates to strengthen its structure and accessibility for Rome’s people (Toy chapter 4). The Carthaginian army would need siege e We will write a custom essay sample on Tactics and Maneuvers of Hannibal specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Tactics and Maneuvers of Hannibal specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Tactics and Maneuvers of Hannibal specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

10 of the biggest challenges for administrative assistants on the job

10 of the biggest challenges for administrative assistants on the job Administrative assistants are often the unsung heroes of the workplace. They are the ones who keep the office running smoothly or the boss happy and well prepared to do her or his job. They can multitask, possess multiple skills, and must face a variety of expected and unexpected challenges. The ability to face down any challenge and set it right is one of the things that really separate the great administrative assistant from the good.When taking on such a position (or considering if this is the field for you), it is vital to be aware of the kinds of challenges that lay ahead of you. Are you up to the task? You should know before you dive in.Keeping CalmA major part of being an administrative assistant is- you guessed it- assisting someone. It’s right there in the job title. If you’re lucky, you’ll be assisting someone who is courteous, understanding, and patient. But that’s often not the case. A superior can be rude, impatient, unreasonable, or downright explosive.It is totally natural for such behavior to make you want to explode too, but the seasoned administrative assistant takes a deep breath and figures out how to navigate difficult personalities. This can be even trickier when the person you are assisting explodes in front of sensitive clients, because you will not only have to defuse your ranting superior but also smooth things over with the client. Basically, youre expected to be cool, collected, and professional at  all times.Striving for PerfectionPeople who act cuckoo at work are more prone to make mistakes. That is a luxury an administrative assistant is never allowed. The best of the best remain organized and on top of the situation no matter what the situation or workplace environment may be. Everyone else can be running around like chickens without heads, but you must always remain in control of your work. Adaptable, dependable, and precise, all without breaking a sweat? Thats you!Never ForgettingOn a similar note, you are not allowed to ever forget anything. Ever. Keep a well-detailed calendar and make sure to check it constantly. Set yourself reminders on your phone. Jot down notes on Post-Its and stick them to your monitor. Do whatever it takes to make sure that everyone thinks you have a photographic memory- even if you don’t. They key is to come up with whatever weird systems works for you, and then to stick with it.Knowing Everyones Likes and DislikesAdministrative assistants most also get into the heads of the people they’re assisting, because not everyone in the office is the same. For example, some coworkers may love to gobble carbs during big meetings and expect a plate of croissants on the table. Others might need their vitamins and prefer a selection of fruit. It’s your job to know what everyone wants and make sure they get it.Staying CheerfulFinally, administrative assistants don’t get to wake up on the wrong side of the bed. Well, they do get to, but they can never let that show. No matter what is happening in the office or your personal life, a smile must always spread across your face, a skip must always be in your step, and pleasantness must radiate from your voice. You must exude happiness even when everyone else is down in the dumps. That can be one of the biggest challenges, since it is not always easy to get a handle on your emotions. People who can’t might not be cut out for a career as an administrative assistant.

Friday, November 22, 2019

The Dangers of an Imperfect Invulnerability

The Dangers of an Imperfect Invulnerability The common phrase Achilles heel refers to a surprising weakness or vulnerability in an otherwise strong or powerful person, a vulnerability that eventually leads to a downfall. What has become a cliche in the English language is one of several modern-day phrases that are left to us from ancient Greek mythology. Achilles was said to be a heroic warrior, whose struggles over whether to fight in the Trojan War or not are described in detail in several books of Homers poem ​The Iliad. The overall myth of Achilles includes the attempt by his mother, the nymph Thetis, to make her son immortal. There are various versions of this story in the ancient Greek literature, including her putting him in fire or water or anointing him, but the one version that has struck the popular imagination is the one with the River Styx and the Achilles Heel. Statius Achilleid The most popular version of Thetis attempt to immortalize her son survives in its earliest written form in Statius Achilleid 1.133-34, written in the first century AD. The nymph holds her son Achilles by his left ankle while she dips him in the River Styx, and the waters confer immortality on Achilles, but only on those surfaces that contact the water. Unfortunately, since Thetis dipped only once and she had to hold onto the baby, that spot, Achilles heel, remains mortal. At the end of his life, when the arrow of Paris (possibly guided by Apollo) pierces Achilles ankle, Achilles is mortally wounded. Imperfect invulnerability is a common theme in world folklore. For example, there is Siegfried, the Germanic hero in the Nibelungenlied who was vulnerable only between his shoulder blades; the Ossetian warrior Soslan or Sosruko from the Nart Saga who is dipped by a blacksmith into alternating water and fire to turn him into metal but missed his legs; and the Celtic hero Diarmuid, who in the Irish Fenian Cycle was pierced by a venomous boar bristle through a wound to his unprotected sole. Other Achilles Versions: Thetiss Intent Scholars have identified many different versions of the Achilles Heel story, as is true for most ancient history myths. One element with lots of variety is what Thetis had in mind when she dipped her son in whatever she dipped him in. She wanted to find out if her son was mortal.She wanted to make her son immortal.She wanted to make her son invulnerable. In the Aigimios (also spelled Aegimius, only a fragment of which still exists), Thetisa nymph but the wife of a mortalhad many children, but she wanted to keep only the immortal ones, so she tested each of them by putting them in a pot of boiling water. They each died, but as she began to carry out the experiment on Achilles his father Peleus angrily intervened. Other versions of this differently crazy Thetis involve her unintentionally killing her children while attempting to make them immortal by burning off their mortal nature  or simply deliberately killing her children because they are mortal and unworthy of her. These versions always have Achilles saved by his father at the last minute. Another variant has Thetis trying to make Achilles immortal, not just invulnerable, and she plans to do that with a magical combination of fire and ambrosia. This is said to be one of her skills, but Peleus interrupts her and the interrupted magical procedure only changes his nature partially, making Achilles skin invulnerable but himself mortal.   Thetiss Method She put him in a pot of boiling water.She put him in a fire.She put him in a combination of fire and ambrosia.She put him in the River Styx. The earliest version of Styx-dipping (and youll need to blame or credit Burgess 1998 for this expression that will not leave my mind soon) is not found in the Greek literature until Statius version in the first century CE. Burgess suggests it was a Hellenistic period addition to the Thetis story. Other scholars think the idea may have come from the Near East, recent religious ideas at the time having included baptism. Burgess points out that dipping a child in the Styx to make it immortal or invulnerable echoes the earlier versions of Thetis dipping her children into boiling water or fire in an attempt to make them immortal. Styx dipping, which today sounds less painful than the other methods, was still dangerous: the Styx was the river of death, separating the lands of the living from the dead. How the Vulnerability was Severed Achilles was in battle at Troy, and Paris shot him through the ankle then stabbed him in the chest.Achilles was in battle at Troy, and Paris shot him in the lower leg or thigh, then stabbed him in the chest.Achilles was in battle at Troy and Paris shot him in the ankle with a poisoned spear.Achilles was at the Temple of Apollo, and Paris, guided by Apollo, shot Achilles in the ankle which kills him. There is considerable variation in the Greek literature about where Achilles skin was perforated. A number of Greek and Etruscan ceramic pots show Achilles being stuck with an arrow in his thigh, lower leg, heel, ankle or foot; and in one, he reaches calmly down to pull the arrow out. Some say that Achilles wasnt actually killed by a shot to the ankle but rather was distracted by the injury and thus vulnerable to a second wound. Chasing the Deeper Myth It is possible, say some scholars, that in the original myth, Achilles was not imperfectly vulnerable because of being dipped in the Styx, but rather because he wore armorperhaps the invulnerable armor that Patroclus borrowed before his deathand received an injury to his lower leg or foot that was not covered by the armor. Certainly, a wound cutting or damaging what is now known as the Achilles tendon would hinder any hero. In that manner, Achilles greatest advantagehis swiftness and agility in the heat of battle- would have been taken away from him. Later variations attempt to account for the super-human levels of heroic invulnerability in Achilles (or other mythic figures) and how they were brought down by something ignominious or trivial: a compelling story even today. Sources Avery HC. 1998. Achilles Third Father. Hermes 126(4):389-397.Burgess J. 1995. Achilles Heel: The Death of Achilles in Ancient Myth. Classical Antiquity 14(2):217-244.Nickel R. 2002. Euphorbus and the Death of Achilles. Phoenix 56(3/4):215-233.Sale W. 1963. Achilles and Heroic Values. Arion: A Journal of Humanities and the Classics 2(3):86-100.Scodel R. 1989. The Word of Achilles. Classical Philology 84(2):91-99.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Nursing Homes and Assisted Livings for Elderly Research Paper

Nursing Homes and Assisted Livings for Elderly - Research Paper Example Long-term care facilities are group-housing environments that provide services for those who lack some capacity for self-care. There are many different LTC facility types (e.g., assisted living, residential care, adult foster care, nursing homes), established and operated according to federal, state, and local regulations and licensing requirements (Dobbs, 2004). The dominant feature of all LTC facility types is arguably the level of care provided. The facility license stipulates the level of care allowed and the training and experience requirements for staff. Unfortunately, care levels are not classified according to the same system for each type of facility making it difficult to directly compare facility types. For example, nursing homes are licensed to provide skilled and/or intermediate care, terms established in federal regulations (Dobbs, 2004). Skilled care is a level of care that requires services that can only be performed safely by a licensed nurse whereas intermediate care is health-related care and services that do not necessarily require licensed practitioners. In contrast, assisted living, residential care, and adult foster care are licensed under state regulations based on the activities of daily living requirements (ADLs) of individuals. The ADLs measure individuals' physical, cognitive, and behavioral functioning. A common A DL measure is whether the individual is "independent," "dependent," or "needs assistance" with bathing, dressing, toileting, transferring, continence, and eating. Arguably, the most important factor to influence both the older individuals' relocation to a LTC facility and the type of LTC facility chosen is the level of care needed, that is, the individuals' physical and functional limitations and degree of cognitive impairment. Other factors include financial status, availability of supportive family and friends, and regional case management practices. The four facility types are described below. Assisted Living Facilities Assisted living facilities (ALFs) are one of the newest living arrangements for elders, designed around a social rather than a medical model of care. In many ways, the function of assisted living is fairly clear: it is a congregate housing alternative for seniors who are unable to live independently, but who do not require the intensive skilled nursing services av ailable in nursing homes. As the

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Impacts of migration on labour market Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Impacts of migration on labour market - Essay Example The best design depends on the research question as well as the orientation of the researcher. The UK National Statistics will provide the much needed secondary information through the UK Labour Forces Survey data. This method is most appropriate for collecting information about the impacts of migration in the UK labour markets. Only the secondary data is used in this study. The design is also suitable because it gives an in-depth description of the phenomena in their existing setting. This fits well when describing how migration has affected the labor market in terms of employment and other sectors of the economy. Descriptive survey is also preferred because it is economical in collecting data from over a large sample with high data turn over. The study have both qualitative and quantitative approaches since the research will need to survey the respondents in various variables such as ethnicity, nationality, country of origin and many others. This will be an appropriate variable in collecting and summarizing data that will be used in analyzing the impacts of migration in the UK labour market. This research strategy has been considered necessary because of its ability to view comprehensively and in detail the major questions raised during the LFS survey. Data sources The study will lie mainly on secondary data sources. The main data source that will be used in the analysis is the UK Labour Forces Survey (LFS). The United Kingdom Labour Forces Survey is a sample of households living at private addresses in the Unite Kingdom. The main objective of LFS is the provision of vital information regarding United Kingdom labour market that can be then utilized in developing, managing, evaluation, and reporting important facts about the labour market policies. Office of the National Statistics is responsible for conducting LFS. Apart from census, Labour Forces Survey is the only comprehensive sources of information about all aspects of the labour market. Since the first L abour Forces Survey that was conducted in 1992, the sample size has been maintained at about 60,000 households in the United Kingdom in each quarter. This sample size represents about 0.2% of the total UK population. While conducting the Labour Forces Survey, the respondents are asked questions regarding personal circumstances such as: ethnicity, country of birth, nationality, and year of arrival in the United Kingdom; and their labour market status during a certain period normally 1-4 weeks before the survey. The Labour Forces Survey is a rotating panel dataset. That is, respondents are interviewed for five consecutive quarters and then leave the sample. In every quarter, one fifth of the sample is interviewed for the first time, one for the second time, and so on. Individuals are asked about their wage in their first and fifth interview only (Dustman, Glitz & Frattini 2008, p.11). The LFS was preferred for this study because it allows for intertemporal comparison of data. In addit ion, the LFS comprises of population weights, which allows for production of tables which give population estimates. It is worth noting that, the construction of population weights does not consider the concept of country of birth or nationality. The researcher has utilized the LFS for the years 1994-2010. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Figure 1 shows employment rate in the UK between 1994 and 2010. The employment rate is also divided into four main categories (UK

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Women’s Rights in Tunisia Essay Example for Free

Women’s Rights in Tunisia Essay During a Conference held in 2002, members of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women commended Tunisia today for its great strides forward in promoting equality between men and women, and urged it to withdraw its reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. [Acting in their personal capacity, the Committees 23 experts from around the world monitor compliance with the Convention, which requires States parties to eliminate discrimination against women in enjoyment of all civil, political, economic and cultural rights. Tunisia ratified that human rights instrument in 1980, with reservations to several articles of the Convention, including article 9 on nationality, article 15 on womens choice of residence and domicile, and article 16 on womens equality in marriage and divorce. The countrys first and second reports were considered by the Committee in 1995.] As the Committee discussed Tunisias third and fourth reports during two meetings , experts commended the Governments strong political will to implement the Convention through numerous amendments to national legislation and measures to improve de facto gender equality. Besides many institutions and programmes for gender equality, the experts noted Tunisias efforts to integrate women in development and reduce illiteracy, maternal mortality and womens health problems. It was encouraging to see the countrys efforts to harmonize the provisions of Islam with the human rights approach, which integrated law and policy in a holistic way, speakers said. To improve the situation of women in the family, the country had done away with polygamy and introduced the concept of partnership in marriage under its personal code. Warning the country against complacency and resting on its laurels, however, experts pointed out that despite impressive achievements, patriarchal stereotypes still hindered progress in Tunisia in many respects. A large portion of the countrys female population was still illiterate and unaware of its rights. To rectify the situation, it was important to educate the people and raise womens awareness of their human rights. Addressing concerns about Tunisias reservations to the Convention, members of the delegation said the country would consider withdrawing its reservations in the future, but, for the time being, its main goal was to develop means of implementing womens rights and giving them a higher profile. At present, the country was doing everything in its power to implement the Convention. Above and beyond legislation, institutional machinery had been established to make equal rights a practical reality for all Tunisian women. A set of initiatives was under way to implement the national strategy on gender issues. [According to the countrys responses to questions by the Committees pre-session working group (document CEDAW/PSWG/2002/II/CRP.2/Add.2), in line with article 9, paragraph 2, of the Convention regarding equal rights in transferring nationality, Tunisias nationality code had been amended as far as acquisition of Tunisian nationality by a child born abroad of a Tunisian mother and an alien father was concerned. In connection with article 15 of the Convention, the document explains that freedom of choice of residence is guaranteed under the Constitution, but to ensure stability and cohesion of families, the law provided for a conjugal duty of cohabitation, incumbent on both spouses. With respect to Tunisias numerous reservations in connection with article 16 of the Convention on womens equal rights during marriage and upon its dissolution, Tunisia explains that a major development in that respect has been the abolition of the wifes duty to obey her husband. With respect to divorce, the countrys personal code now allows the wife to request and obtain a divorce under the same terms as her husband. By further amendments to the personal code, the country has protected the wife against attempts to manipulate divorce proceedings against her interests. The countrys law now stipulates that both parents should cooperate in managing the familys affairs, including childrens education, travel and financial transactions. Yet another amendment has given a say in the childs affairs to the father, guardian and mother.] Among other issues highlighted in the debate were problems associated with prostitution, the age and conditions of marriage, the situation of women prisoners, Tunisian inheritance laws, matrimonial property, and the countrys achievements in education. Background The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women met to consider the combined third and fourth reports of Tunisia (document CEDAW/C/TUN/3-4), submitted in compliance with the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women. Tunisia ratified the Convention in 1980. The report notes that womens rights in Tunisia have been strengthened, their roles diversified and their image enhanced. It details various measures taken to advance the status of women through the countrys Personal Status Code, several international conventions on womens rights, and internal reform. Such measures ban discrimination in political parties, lay down principles for cooperation between spouses, establish the rights of women as individuals as well as daughters, wives and mothers, and bring in more balanced individual and civil rights. A major amendment to the Personal Status Code aims to eliminate the link between women and submission, which represents a break from the former treatment of women as inferior beings. Another major innovation obliges women to contribute to the familys expenses, recognizing the economic role of women. Under the Code, however, the husband remains head of the family, albeit in an economic rather than domineering role, as the provider for his wife and children. The report states that Tunisia has attempted to combat sexist stereotypes through the celebration of National Womens Day on 13 August, through an exhibition called Women through the Ages, through revision of school textbooks to remove inferior images of women and through the media. Several mechanisms have been set up to improve the medias portrayal of women, including the Commission for Monitoring the Image of Women in the Media, an observatory within the Centre for Research, Documentation and Information on Women that monitors the image of women, and the Tahar Haddad Prize for a balanced image of women in the media. In addition, the Ministry for Women and Family Affairs is developing a communications strategy to change attitudes towards women and also ensure that human rights become part of family life, using radio, television and the press as well as intermediaries working in the family environment. Efforts have also been made to combat violence within the family, the report continues. For example, an article of the Penal Code which granted attenuating circumstances to husbands who had murdered adulterous wives has been repealed. Husbands who murder their wives now face life imprisonment, and those who practice marital violence are subject to two-year prison terms as well as a fine. According to 1998 statistics, 3,600 women representing 0.21 per cent of families instituted legal proceedings against their husbands. The countrys Child Protection Code now shields children from any form of violence, and a body of regional child protection officers takes preventive action when the health or physical and mental integrity of a child is threatened. Officers may take measures to eliminate the source of the threat or temporarily place the child with a foster family or social institution. The report notes that prostitution has declined as Tunisian women have become more emancipated, and several establishments have closed. In 1998, the number of authorized prostitutes came to 422 in a total of 15 establishments. The remaining brothels are subject to strict medical and health controls by the Ministry of Public Health. The report states, however, that Tunisian society is tolerant of prostitution, and the practice can be only gradually reduced as relationships between men and women based on equality and reciprocity are strengthened. Regarding political and public life, the report states that the number of women in the Chamber of Deputies increased from 1.12 per cent in 1957 to 11.5 per cent in 1999, or 21 women out of a total 182 deputies. In 1998, the Higher Magistracy Council comprised 28 members, including two women. Since 1983, two women have also held ministerial office, as Minister of Public Health and Minister for Women and Family Affairs. In the late 1990s, women accounted for over one quarter of civil servants, 34.4 per cent of the banking sector and 48 per cent of the health sector. The role of women has also increased in ministerial departments, the economy, entrepreneurship, social and educational care facilities and in public life. Tunisian women have become increasingly active as international representatives, accounting for 14.3 per cent of the diplomatic corps in 1999, as compared to 9.1 per cent in 1993, as well as in international forums, intergovernmental and NGOs (non-governmental organizations). In the field of education, gaps between girls and boys at all levels are quickly closing, the report states. Promotion rates for both sexes have increased at an almost identical pace, but girls are now ahead. In higher education, the proportion of women rose from 37.2 per cent in 1988 to 50.4 per cent in 2000. Despite those figures, female illiteracy remains high at 36.3 per cent, compared to 17.7 per cent among men in the same age groups. A national programme to combat illiteracy has been set up to eliminate illiteracy among the 15-44 age group, narrow the difference in illiteracy between males and females, and prevent any backslide into illiteracy. Regarding employment, some 65.6 per cent of Tunisians are employed in the urban areas and 34.4 per cent in rural regions. Women hold 24.6 per cent of jobs in urban areas and only 20 per cent in rural areas, although the latter figure has climbed from 17.6 per cent in 1989. Tunisias legal system has gradually shifted towards integrating women in employment on the basis of equal skills, equal pay, and the demand for female employment grew consistently between 1993 and 1997. A priority objective under the countrys Ninth Development Plan is to more effectively integrate women into economic activity by giving them access to new technologies, improving their professional qualifications, achieving equal opportunities in training and retraining, and promoting equal opportunities in investment. Tunisia has also made gains in the field of womens health, which has been specifically recognized as a main component of the countrys overall health system, the report states. Currently, 90.6 per cent of basic health centres offer maternal and child health services. Due to improved living conditions and national programmes for women and children, including those providing immunization, fighting diarrheal diseases and enhancing prenatal follow-up and delivery, child mortality declined from 150 per 1,000 live births in 1966 to 45 in 1990. The adoption in the 1990s of a risk-free maternity approach reduced the child mortality rate to 27.2 per 1,000 by 1997. The mortality rate for women of childbearing age (15-49) fell from 1.6 per 1,000 live births in 1985 to 0.66 per 1,000 in 1994. Contraceptive use rose from 49.8 per cent in 1984 to 65.6 per cent in 1998 in Tunisia. In addition, abortion is now part and parcel of human rights for women, which makes Tunisia the first Muslim country to permit it. However, a significant gap remains between urban and rural areas in attitudes towards abortion, and there are pockets of resistance in the south and central west of the country. The report notes that the State has made considerable efforts to ensure access to basic health care as well as to maternal and reproductive health care. Attention is devoted to the health of women at various stages of their lives. But persistent gaps remain in some areas between the medical means employed and the results recorded. The Ninth Development Plan has rightly emphasized the need for better supervision of womens health in particular, including mental health, by stepping up prevention. In the financial field, womens access to home loans and income-generating credit has been increasingly encouraged by public authorities to strengthen the role of women in development. The creation of new finance mechanisms as well as a new system of micro-credit should open up new and promising horizons for women who have difficulty accessing traditional forms of bank credit. Diversification of micro credit sources will help strengthen both average and vulnerable social groups, the report states, favouring an increasingly active role for women undertaking small projects in the informal sector. According to the report, rural women have benefited from technical and financial support in the fields of agriculture and handicrafts. It highlights efforts to improve education, literacy, access to health services, and employment, to assist women farmers and craftswomen, and set up anti-poverty and other governmental programmes to assist agriculture and urban development. The quality of rural life had improved considerably, due to a combination of regional development policy, overall sectoral policies and efforts of the National Solidarity Fund and the Tunisian Solidarity Bank. New mechanisms and the launch of regional plans of action for rural women should open up real prospects for self-development and better living conditions, and the access of women to various services, including employment and production support. Tunisian women have also gained in the legal area, the report states. Women now have the right to conclude contracts in their own name, dispose of property, serve as administrators of estates and institute proceedings before any court. Other legal rights include access to judicial office, the right to choose their home, equality and partnership within the family, possession of their dowries, mutual respect between spouses, and the right of women to own, acquire, retain and dispose of property. A new era had been marked in the further strengthening of womens rights in Tunisia, as enshrined in the countrys Constitution of 1959. That Constitution promulgated equal political, economic and social rights and duties for men and women. Since the formation of the new Government in 1987, Tunisia has witnessed an important quantitative jump forward in the promotion and consolidation of womens status within the family and society as a whole, as well as a strengthening of their role in the development of the country. In this respect, Tunisia has implemented a comprehensive strategy to develop womens capacities and protect them against all forms of discrimination. The approach adopted was one in which democracy and development were closely related and solidarity and tolerance were complementary.   Since August 1992 Tunisia has fostered partnerships between women and men in the management of family affairs and of children, as well as in the areas of employment, social security and other fields related to civil and economic relations. She said that since the 1990s, Tunisia has been active in the development of a comprehensive system of mechanisms and programmes, such as the Committee on Women and Development, a planning methodology based on social gender. Tunisia had responded positively to the recommendations and working methodologies flowing from discussion of the countrys first and second reports in 1995. Various actions and decisions have been taken moves considered as breakthroughs in the consolidation of the status of Tunisian women. Among them were establishment of a committee on the image of women in the media and a national committee for the promotion of rural women. Tunisias determination to enhance the status of women by developing its legislative system is one of the options pursued in line with societys developing needs. Since 1995, Tunisia has passed legislation introducing a joint ownership scheme for couples; granting women the right to give their own family name to children born of unknown fathers and the opportunity for gene testing to prove parenthood; giving Tunisian women married to non-Tunisians the right to confer Tunisian citizenship on children born outside the country. This could be done by making a mere declaration when the father was dead, legally incapacitated or missing. Tunisia is proud of its success in achieving equal rights between men and women in most sectors. The eradication of illiteracy was another of the objectives of the comprehensive development schemes adopted by Tunisia. Female illiteracy rates has dropped from 80.4 per cent in 1966 to 36.2 per cent in 1999. Tunisia has also initiated a national adult literacy programme in April 2000 to reinforce the programme already in place. These programmes sought to reduce illiteracy rates to 20 per cent by 2004.Promoting the economic capacity of women, facilitating their access to appropriate vocational training, and encouraging them to set up small- and medium-sized enterprises were some of the highest priorities in the strategy for the promotion of Tunisias women. The ratio of girls benefiting from vocational training had increased from 27 per cent in 1996 to 35 per cent in 2000. The number of women benefiting from micro-project mechanisms had similarly increased, with the proportion of women granted loans rising to as high as 35 per cent in 2001 from 10 per cent in 1997. Tunisian women have gained access to all fields of employment and public life, their participation rate reaching 25 per cent in 2000. Today, women accounted for one out of two teachers, one out of three doctors, one out of four magistrates, 25.2 per cent of all journalists, and 14 per cent of all executive positions in public administration. Tunisia had not excluded anyone from its development plan, adding that women in both rural and urban areas had actively benefited from adequate care, allowing them to participate in economic and social programmes. There has been a dramatic increase in decision-making positions for women. Their presence in Parliament has increased from 7 per cent in 1995 to 11.5 per cent today. Women accounted for 9.3 per cent of government positions; such achievements would not have been accomplished were it not for the staunch political determination and firmly-rooted belief that democracy could not be achieved. Tunisia is unwavering its determination to safeguard all the gains so far made and to continue its efforts to eradicate all forms of discrimination against women.   Associations play a major part in the countrys development effort. As womens rights come centre-stage within the universal system of human rights, and as the number of worldwide initiatives to consolidate the status of women increases, Tunisia is determined to further develop its programmes and form forces with other countries and regions as well as international institutions and bodies.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Tom’s closing speech in The Glass Menagerie -- English Literature Tenn

Tom’s closing speech in The Glass Menagerie Tom’s closing speech in The Glass Menagerie is very emotional and ironic. However, this monologue is somewhat ambiguous and doesn’t implicitly state whether Tom found the adventure he sought. It seems as though he never returned to St. Louis, and spent the remainder of his life wandering from place to place. This is inferred when he says,† I didn’t go to the moon, I went much further-for time is the longest distance between two places†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Throughout the play, the fire escape has been a symbol of Tom’s entrance and exit into both his reality and his dream world. He tells us that his departure marked the last time he â€Å"descended the steps of this fire-escape†, thus permanently embarking on his journey of solitude into what was once only a part of his dream world. From the statement, â€Å"(I) followed, from then on, in my father’s footsteps..† the reader can see that Tom acknowledges that he has chosen a path which is very similar to that of his father’s. In recognising this fact, Tom also admits that he abandoned his family just like Mr. Wingfield did. Tom’s journey does not seem to bring the escape and excitement that he had always longed for. He says, â€Å"The cities swept about me like dead leaves..† This description does not sound as though it comes from a traveller who is ecstatic about visiting different parts of the world. Cities are anything but dead; on the contrary, they are vibrant and full of life, and persons who are artistically inclined tend to be attracted to bustling cities. By categorising all the cities as dead leaves, Tom classifies them as similar entities in which he notices no individuality, uniqueness or excitement. He cannot relish in the beau... ...scape, and she will most likely carry this pain for the rest of her life. It also symbolises Tom’s final farewell to her. Essentially, this monologue reveals that Tom’s escape has not been as complete or as perfect as he had hoped. While he has escaped the physical limitations of the Wingfield apartment and the restrictions of his job at the warehouse, memories from his past and feelings of regret seem to create an intangible prison for Tom. He has been unable to remove himself from the coffin and leave all the nails untouched, as was his former desire. His statement of â€Å"I am more faithful than I intended to be!† alludes to the fact that he is fully cognisant that he has left his family to struggle with the consequences of his departure. The Glass Menagerie ends with Tom’s life being exactly opposite to the one he had foreseen when he planned his escape.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Violent Video Games Are Harmful to Young People

Violent video games can definitely be harmful to young people, especially very young, easily influenced children. Maybe they don’t affect each child the same, but I’m sure that there are times when they negatively affect the life of an adolescent. I would imagine that any one exposed to violence like some I’ve seen on some video games, would pick up the behavior subconsciously over time, even if they don’t consciously act violent. Sometimes young people who play games like these sort of separate themselves from reality, which leads to angry behavior.Other times, it leads straight to violence because that’s what these kids know and experience daily on the television screen. Everyone has heard the controversy surrounding the hugely popular Grand Theft Auto games. In which, young people steal cars and kill people for absolutely no reason. I see this as a perfect example. I wonder how often kids spend time playing this game, or others similar to it, and suddenly start acting out violently as a result. I believe that young people don’t always necessarily have the maturity to realize that video games aren’t real.It’s at these young ages that our lives are shaped, and we learn by example to become well rounded adults. If kids are constantly observing violence, then as they age they are sure to act violently or at least harbor a great deal of anger into adulthood. While I haven’t seen this happen first hand, I’m sure that this type of thing happens all the time with young people who play violent video games all the time. Doubt: I seriously have to wonder if violent video games are harmful to young people.It seems like blaming video games is the most pleasant way for parents to avoid taking the responsibility for raising a violent kid. It’s just like how so often people blame kids’ bad behavior on music or television shows. I’ve watched violent movies, heard violent music, even pl ayed violent video games, but I don’t run around killing people or robbing liquor stores. Does that mean that the games I played weren’t violent enough to affect me? If these games are so harmful to young people, then how did I avoid these harmful side effects of them?Furthermore, if violent video games have the potential to turn sweet little children into murderers, then why does our government allow them to be sold all over our country? To me it sounds awfully familiar to the concept that rock n’ roll taught children to be wild and rambunctious. Then there’s the claim that rap music makes kids hate women and sell drugs. Young people might be easily influenced, but they aren’t stupid. It all boils down to how they were raised. I think that violent adults are most likely the result of parents who didn’t do their jobs correctly when their children were young.I mean, give young people some credit, most of them turn out all right, despite the t hings they are exposed to on a daily basis. Assuming that violent video games makes every kid violent is like believing that every young person that observes a person smoking a cigarette is going to pick up the habit. Just because kids are young that doesn’t mean that they don’t have the brain to choose how they act. I know plenty of people who love violent video games, and who are not violent people. Therefore, it’s wrong to claim that violent video games are harmful to all young people.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Positive psychology Essay

Positive psychology is literally all about the positive energy within a person. It is an organized attempt to make the most out of it. It is believed by the psychologists that it is preventative therapy instead of it being post illness therapy. Most of the psychologists that believe in this system believe in the glass being half full. It is optimism and happiness that can lead a person to live a better and a fuller life. I believe that action must be taken before it is too late. The effort of professionals in trying to make the world a happy place and to attempt to make a go at it is commendable. It is a very effective method of trying to bring out the positive energy. In the fast changing world of today, materialism and consumerism rule the roost. It is that only that which is making a lot of people unhappy unnecessarily. It is the competition and the need to strive for more. Positive psychology teaches one to be satisfied with what one has. Once that person is happy, he will emit happiness. Happiness, laughter and smiles are all contagious. One smile goes a long way. Many a times it takes just a smile to light up a person’s day. Small changes in ones lifestyles on a daily basis can go about a long way in maintaining a healthy outlook on life. It is important to appreciate the small things in life. One needs to take time out to stop and stare. To be able to smell the flower. To be able to see the ants in the garden. On a more personal level, being more organized can save a person from unnecessary frustration and anger while looking for something. Knowing where to find what can add to the confidence and that’s a small step towards having a good day. In the long term, it is important to remind to oneself, the need for patience and tolerance. A cool mind can handle any problem more effectively and let it affect one much lesser. At the end of the day, positive psychology is all about the ripple effect one person can have on the community. It is the chain reaction caused by the positive energy radiating from one person to the other. It is all about happiness, and sharing. It is truly about being human.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Free sample - Principles of perception. translation missing

Principles of perception. Principles of perception1. The principle of figure and ground In this principle, the terms figure and ground are used to explain how people use the elements of the scene, which contain a similarity in shape and appearance and group them together as one whole entity. All similar elements (figure) tend to be perceptually contrasted with dissimilar elements (ground) in order to create the impression of a whole (Spelke 1993, p. 1490). For instance, in a picture of a lighthouse with blue horizontal lines, the lighthouse stands out as the figure, while the horizontal blue lines are perceived as the ground (Lohr 2000, p. 49). However, it is not always easy to separate visually the figure from the ground. Sometimes, creative artists may make drawings that illustrate how difficult it is to pick out the figure from the ground on which it is positioned. Psychologists have traditionally been using carefully designed art that plays around with the figure and ground in profoundly fascinating ways (Goldstein 2009, p. 298). In such works of art, the figure and ground appear to interchange. However, nature also provides perceptual intrigues that are difficult to point out without the use of the principle of figure and ground. In most cases, this takes the form of camouflage, whereby the principle facilitates the breakdown of figure and ground. The objective is always to make the figure seem like the ground so much it disappears from view. It is only with immense difficulty that one can separate a chameleon from the green leaf stalk on which it is perched. This is because the figure and ground have been merged together. This principle perfectly explains the tendency by some people in an organization to hide their true attributes mainly through pretense. A prospective employee who perceives his background to constitute an undesirable trait may suppress this negative attribute, by pretending to possess only the attributes that are needed for the job. For instance, they may claim to have associations with renowned professionals in a field for which the employer is seeking a job candidate. Employer may have to request for further information in order to determine whether the employees are telling the truth or not. 2. The principle of similarity, proximity, and continuity The principle of similarity indicates that objects that share visual characteristics like color, shape, texture, size, orientation or value are seen as belonging together. These features make similar objects create varying impressions, even though they are equidistant from those objects that are the odd ones out within the group. For instance, in a groups of small and large circles, the large circles will appear to belong together just because of the similarity in their size. The same thing will apply to the small circles. In terms of proximity, things that are closer together are regarded as belonging together. For instance, when horizontal rows made up of small circles are closer to each other than the vertical columns that they form, they are perceived as two vertical lines. In terms of continuity, it becomes easy to predict the preference for continuous figures. For instance, the image of a black cross is perceived as two crossed lines instead of four lines that meet at the center. The principle of similarity, proximity, and continuity explains the behavior of people within organizations, whereby individuals are judged according to the people they associate with (Ferguson 2004, p. 39). When people adopt mannerisms, habits, memberships in certain clubs and societies, likes, and dislikes that are typical of a given caliber of people, they are automatically classified in the same group with such people. The concept of proximity is used to determine the commonness of purpose among everyone within the organization, despite the various individual differences, personality traits, and personal interests among them. Similarly, the concept of continuity defines the disposition by people in an organization to appreciate success in its entirety without paying attention to personal sacrifices of certain individuals, exceptional transformational leadership qualities of the manager or some unethical behavior among some employees in efforts to achieve the desired outcome. Â   References Ferguson, M 2004, How social perception can automatically influence behavior, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 33-39. Goldstein, B 2009, Sensation and perception, Penguin Books, New York. Lohr, L 2000, ‘Three Principles of Perception for Instructional Interface Design’, Educational Technology, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 45-52. Spelke, E 1993, ‘Gestalt relations and object perception: a developmental study’ Perception, Vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 1483 – 1501.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Political Geography and Ownership of the Oceans

Political Geography and Ownership of the Oceans The control and ownership of the oceans has long been a controversial topic. Since ancient empires began to sail and trade over the seas, command of coastal areas has been important to governments. However, it wasnt until the twentieth century that countries began to come together to discuss a standardization of maritime boundaries. Surprisingly, the situation still has yet to be resolved. Making Up Their Own Limits From ancient times through the 1950s, countries established the limits of their jurisdiction at sea on their own. While most countries established a distance of three nautical miles, the borders varied between three and 12 nm. These territorial waters are considered part of a countrys jurisdiction, subject to all of the laws of the land of that country. From the 1930s to the 1950s, the world began to realize the value of mineral and oil resources under the oceans. Individual countries began to expand their claims to the ocean for economic development. In 1945, U.S. President Harry Truman claimed the entire continental shelf off the coast of the U.S. (which extends almost 200 nm off the Atlantic coast). In 1952, Chile, Peru, and Ecuador claimed a zone 200 nm from their shores. Standardization The international community realized that something needed to be done to standardize these borders. The first United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS I) met in 1958 to begin discussions on these and other oceanic issues. In 1960 UNCLOS II was held and in 1973 UNCLOS III took place. Following UNCLOS III, a treaty was developed that attempted to tackle the boundary issue. It specified that all coastal countries would have a 12 nm territorial sea and a 200 nm Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Each country would control the economic exploitation and environmental quality of their EEZ. Though the treaty has yet to be ratified, most countries are adhering to its guidelines and have begun to consider themselves ruler over a 200 nm domain. Martin Glassner reports that these territorial seas and EEZs occupy approximately one-third of the world ocean, leaving just two-thirds as high-seas and international waters. What Happens When Countries Are Very Close Together? When two countries lie closer than 400 nm apart (200nm EEZ 200nm EEZ), an EEZ boundary must be drawn between the countries. Countries closer than 24 nm apart draw a median line boundary between each others territorial waters. The UNCLOS protects the right of passage and even flight through (and over) narrow waterways known as chokepoints. What About Islands? Countries like France, which continues to control many small Pacific islands, now have millions of square miles in a potentially profitable ocean area under their control. One controversy over the EEZs has been to determine what constitutes enough of an island to have its own EEZ. The UNCLOS definition is that an island must remain above the water line during high water and may not just be rocks, and must also be habitable for humans. Theres still much to be hammered out regarding the political geography of the oceans but it seems that countries are following the recommendations of the 1982 treaty, which should limit most arguments over control of the sea.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

HR strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

HR strategy - Essay Example The unreliable market experienced during the case would have been as a result of poor production which is also a consequence of lack of proper management by the group managers and corresponding supervisors within the packaging department (Armstrong, 2008, p. 13). Some of the consequences of poor management experienced in the case study include but not limited to reduction in sales which negatively impacted on the company creating a perception that the company is losing consumer interest in the global market (Heneman and Judith, 2006, p. 16). In order for the company to go through such situations, there must have been issues that compromise the quality and reliability of the company in carrying out the designated product packaging work in line with the company objectives, missions and visions for the near future which is aimed at not less than creating large economies of scale within the global context (Sparrow, 2009, p. 71). ii. How will these changes impact on the Sonoco Strategy? C onsidering then situations that were experienced within the past decades, it would be wise to utilize the scenarios to determine the current requirements that would enable the company achieve to the required quality and quality so that the company becomes /retains the lead and preference in the packaging sector within the global market (Sparrow, 2009, p. 73). However, it is adept to include both the management and employees in a common strategic plan so that all the required issues are addressed from within a common centre that is able to communicate with the other branches so that the company achieves a common goal in their quest to raise the company to higher and better business class at both levels (Dr. Kilia, 2005, p. 75, & Warne, 2005, p. 84). Through inclusion of the entire stakeholders in the decision making process especially the employees; it is likely that the company would gain from the strategy as the employees would recognize that their concern is necessary in the compa ny’s strategic plan (Schein, 1968, p. 28, & Stewart, 1991, p. 61). This would in itself act as a morale booster hence high output would be achieved from the employees at drastically low production cost. A reduction in production expense with increased productivity is a sign of profit to the company (Purcell and wright, 2007, p. 22, &Ehnert, 2009, p.105). 2. The Cindy Hartley’s objectives for change at Sonoco As the vice president of the Sonoco Company, Cindy Hartley came up with strategies to control fixed costs and reduce expenditure which worked well at some time but later experienced a lot of challenges due to then variation in the value of US dollar and other economic factors like decline in trade with Asia due to financial crisis. However, Cindy perceived a lot more productive measures after a hint from the new CEO, DeLoach’s (Revans, 1982, p. 42, & Temple, 2001, p. 38). Despite the short stay at the company, five years was enough for Cindy Hartley to come up with new policies to positively impact on management and performance to enhance development. However, a lot of emphasis was made on compensation and succession plans so that the

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Integral Quantity Data types Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Integral Quantity Data types - Essay Example Yes, we can represent integers bigger than what int allows. Basically, integers have limit up to 2,147,483,647, and if we want to show number greater than this we have two options. We can use long or BigInteger. In this scenario, the limit for long is 9,223,372,036,854,775,807. For storing space and increasing the time of execution of program Java provides two data types (TutorialPoints, 2014; Oracle Corporation, 2014). Yes, for representing arbitrarily large integers we can use two other options: BigInteger and BigDecimal. However, it is not default because we write small programs in which our integer values can easily store and take less space. Hence, if BigDecimal or BigInteger becomes default it will require more space and the program execution will require additional time. Due to this reason there is not a single representation of integral quantities (TutorialPoints, 2014; Oracle Corporation,

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Regulating Soldiers Body Temperature, Uniform Technology Summary Essay

Regulating Soldiers Body Temperature, Uniform Technology Summary - Essay Example A soldier may end up experiencing different health issues as a result of changes in climate in the areas they train and operate. These health issues can be divided into heat and cold based health issues. Heat related issues include heat cramps, syncope, fatigue and stroke and cold related health issues include hypothermia as well as frostbite. There are various technologies that can help monitor and change the body temperature of the soldiers with the changes in the climate. These technologies including phase change, hybrid, and evaporative as well as circulatory cooling technologies. Phase change material is a technology that can help in managing soldier’s body temperature if this technology is used to design the uniforms of the soldiers. This technology has several benefits including reduction of sweat, feeling of cold and decrease body temperature if the soldier is experiencing excessive warmth. While managing the temperature of a soldier’s body, this technology even provides soldiers with comfort. The technology is useful for soldier’s clothing because it does not causes issues when it comes in contract with the gears used by the soldiers. The technology lacks toxins; it is not flammable, is quite long lasting and can be reused. In order to use this technology along with uniforms the technology needs wires to function. This can restrict the acceptability of this technology, but if soldier’s uniforms have the ability to create electricity then this technology can easily be used. Another issue associated with this technology is fabric tearing but this problem may be experienced in the long run. Outlast is an existing clothing brand that has already developed uniforms for army professionals with the help of phase change material (PCM) ( 1). The company operates throughout the globe and is developing products that are made with PCM and these materials have been tested and approved by

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Effect of Paclitaxel for Breast Cancer Treatment

Effect of Paclitaxel for Breast Cancer Treatment Effect of paclitaxel along with withnia sominiferia on lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity changes in 7,12 di methyl benz(a) anthracene induced breast cancer wistar rats Dr.N.Muninathan1*, Dr.P. Mohanalakshmi2,Ambareesha Kondam k., Dr. S. Malliga3 1* – Department of Biochemistry, Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute, Enathur, Kanchipuram – 631552, Tamil Nadu, India. 2- Department of Biochemistry, Sri Muthukumaran Medical College, Chennai 3- Department of Biochemistry, ESIC Medical College, Chennai Abstract Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in the levels of lactate dehydogenase enzyme(LDH) activity and efficacy of combination of paclitaxel along with Withnia Sominiferia against breast cancer in experimental animals. Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in all developed countries (except Japan) as well as in North Africa, South America, and southeastern and western Asia. While the incidence of breast cancer appears to be increasing, mortality rates are now declining in at least some western countries. Breast cancer ranks third when both the sexes are considered together and is clearly a significant global public health problem. Design/Methods: Breast cancer was induced in rats by 7, 12 Di methyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) at the dosage of 20mgs dissolved in 0.5ml sunflower oil and administered into experimental animals for 28 weeks. In this study, we demonstrated that combination of paclitaxel and withania somnifera revert the changes in the rats f rom lethal dose of DMBA within 30 days. Results: All the isoenzymes LDH1 – LDH5 were observed in cancer bearing animals. Expression of these isoenzymes were found be reduced in paclitaxel and Withania somnifera treated animals. Conclusions: The treatment with combination of paclitaxel and withania somnifera effectively reduced LDH enzyme activity levels. So, from the obtained results it is concluded that paclitaxel and withania somnifera is capable of restoring the breast architecture. Key words: Withania somnifera, DMBA, Paclitaxel, LDH and Breast cancer. Introduction Breast cancer ranks third when both the sexes are considered together (Parkin, 1999) and is clearly a significant global public health problem. There are nearly 8,00,000 new cases of breast cancer worldwide each year .In approximately half of these patients, breast cancer will be the eventual cause of death. Incidence of breast cancer in Indian women is not as high as in western countries (Sinha et al., 2003) .It is the second most common cancer among women in south India. The age standardized rates vary from 22 to 28 per 1, 00,000 women (Sanghvi, 1998). Although the rates appear to be lower than those seen in developed countries, the burden of cancer in India is alarming. Worldwide incidences of breast cancer continue to rise and geographical variations in breast cancer incidence indicate that environment factors contribute to overall risk (Millikan, 1995). Exposure to environmental carcinogens early in life is thought to be one of the first events in the development of breast cancer. Each year breast cancer is diagnosed in 910,000 women worldwide and 376,000 women die from the disease. Most of these cases are in industrial countries e.g., North America (180,000) and Europe (220,000). PAH’s an important class of chemical carcinogens that are widespread in the ambient environment due to fossil fuel combustion for energy production, transportation and industry. DMBA, a potent PAH recognized as an initiator of both skin and liver cancer (Masaaki Miyata et al). The covalent binding of DMBA metabolites to DNA has been implicated as a critical step in the initiation phase of cancers. Paclitaxel (Taxol), a naturally occurring antineoplastic agent has shown great promise in the therapeutic management of certain human solid tumors particularly in metastatic breast cancer and malignancy involves skin, lung and refractory ovaries. It is the original member of the taxane group of anticancer drugs derived from the bark and needles of the pacific yew tree â€Å"Taxus brevifolia†. Paclitaxels antitumor activity was discovered in1960’s during a large scale 35,000 plants-screening program sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA. Withania is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine in India and in Unani and Middle Eastern traditional medicines, where it is highly regarded as a panacea, aphrodisiac, and rejuvenative. Withania sominifera (L). Dunal (Solanaceae) commonly called Ashwagandha (Sanskrit) is an Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plant, which has been widely used as a home remedy for several ailments.(Bhattacharya et al., 1997) The use of ashwagandha in Ayurvedic medicine extends back more than 3000 to 4000 years (Upton, 2000) (Agarwall et al., 1997). It has been widely extolled as a tonic, especially for emaciation in people of all ages, including babies, and enhances the reproductive function of both men and women. It has also been used for inflammation, especially in antitumor, arthritic and rheumatic conditions, for asthma, and as a major tonic to counteract aging and promote youthful longevity (Dhuley., 1998). Materials And Methods 1.1. Chemicals: 7,12 Dimethyl benz (a) anthracene and Withania somnifera were purchased from Sigma chemical company, USA. All the other chemicals used were of analytical grade. 1.2. Animal care and housing: Female Wistar rats, 6-8 weeks of age and weighing 150-200g, were used. The animals were procured from Central Animal House Block, Meenakshi Medical College and Research institute, Kanchipuran, Tamil Nadu, India and maintained in a controlled environmental condition of temperature and humidity on alternatively 12 h light/dark cycles. All animals were fed standard pellet diet (Gold Mohor rat feed, Ms.Hindustan Lever Ltd., Mumbai) and water ad libitum. This research work on wistar female rats was sanctioned and approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (REG NO. 765/03/ca/CPCSEA). 1.3. Experimental Design The animals were divided in to six groups of 6 animals each. Group I animals served as control, Group II, III, IV, V as animals treated with DMBA (20mg ) per animal in sunflower oil (0.5ml), three times a week for 28 weeks to induce skin cancer. After tumor induction Group III animals were treated with Paclitaxel (33mg/kg b.wt) once in a week for 4 weeks. Group IV animals were treated with Withania somnifera (250 µg/animal) for 30 days. Group V animals were treated with both Paclitaxel and Withania somnifera (as in group III and group IV). These were Group VI Control animals treated with paclitaxel and Withania somnifera for 28weeks plus 30 days. After the experimental period of 32 weeks, the animals were sacrificed by cervical decapitation. 1.4. Biochemical analysis The isoenzymes pattern of lactate dehydrogenase was separated by the method of Dietz and Lubrano (1967). III. Results Plate 1 depicts the Isoenzyme pattern of lactate dehydrogenase in serum of control and experimental animals. All the isoenzymes LDH1 – LDH5 were observed in cancer bearing (group II) animals. Expression of these isoenzymes were found be reduced in paclitaxel (group III) and Withania somnifera (group IV) treated animals. However a much significant reduction in the LDH isoenzyme expression pattern was observed in-group V animals treated with both paclitaxel and Withania somnifera. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern in serum of control and experimental animals Lane 1:Control Lane 2:DMBA treated Lane 3:Paclitaxel treated Lane 4:Withania somnifera treated Lane 5:Paclitaxel and Withania somnifera treated cancer bearing animal Lane 6:Paclitaxel and Withania somnifera treated control animal IV. Discussion: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is the most common clinical enzyme used in the cancer patients for prognostic purpose ( Invone et al., 1998). It has an important role in germ cell functions and can predict responses to chemotherapy and the prospects of remission. Human cancer tissues typically exhibit 2-3 fold increases in glycolytic enzymes and LDH activity. Sandhya Mishra et al. (2004) have also reported the increased level of LDH in breast cancer patients. Anderson and Kovatik (1981) reported greater LDH activity in breast cancer conditions. There was a significant increase in LDH level in serum of cancer bearing Group II animals. This might be due to the membrane disruptions that caused the release of these enzymes from the cancer cells or the overproduction by the tumor cells (Helmes et al., 1998). The elevated LDH activity may also have resulted from differences in the rate of synthesis, degradation or the excretion of the enzymes in the mammary cancer bearing animals. Schwartz (1973) has reported that among the isoenzymes LDH5 was six times greater than LDH1 in mammary tumor cells. Flavanoids have proved to possess antitumor effect on various animal models (Ames et al., 1995). The biological and pharmacological activity of Withania somnifera was associated with phenolic compounds mainly to flavanoids, aromatic acids and esters (Burdock, 1998; De catsro, 2001). Antioxidant activity of flavanoids may also be due to their structural features and its action on membrane (Saija et al., 1995; Mathur et al., 2003 ; Mohan et al., 2006). Paclitaxel being rich in flavanoid content possess antitumor and antiproliferative activities that stabilizes the membrane permeability and reduces the release of LDH. V. Statistical analysis For statistical analysis, one way analysis of analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used, followed by the Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test. VI. Conclusion From the present study, the effect of Paclitaxel- Withania somnifera combination proved to be effective chemotherapeutic agent against DMBA induced Breast cancer in wistar rats compared to that of paclitaxel or Withania somnifera confirmed analyzing the LDH isoenzymes levels in serum. Reference Agarwal, R., Diwanay, S., Patki, P., and Patwardhan, B ( 1999). Studies on immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) extracts in experimental immune inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol, 67: 27-35. Ames BN, Swirsky G and Willet WC. (1995). The causes and prevention of cancer. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA., 92:5258-5265. Anderson GR, Kovacik WP Jr. (1981). LDHK an unusual oxygen – sensitive lactate dehydrogenase expressed in human cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 78 (8): 3209 – 13. Bhattacharya, S. K., Satyan, K. S., and Ghosal, S. (1997). Antioxidant activity of glycowithanolides from Withania somnifera. Indian J Exp Biol, 35: 236-239. Budhiraja, R. D., Sudhir, S., and Garg, K. N.( 1983). Cardiovascular effects of a withanolide from Withania coagulans, dunal fruits. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 27: 129-134. Burdock GA. (1998). Review of the biological properties and toxicity of bee propolis (propolis). Food and chemical toxicology. 36 : 347-363. Decastro SI. (2001). Propolis: biological and pharmacological activities. Therapeutic uses of this bee product. Annual review on biological sciences. 3 : 49-83. Dhuley, J. N. (1998). Therapeutic efficacy of Ashwagandha against experimental aspergillosis in mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol, 20: 191-198. Dietz AA. and Lubrano T. (1967). Separation and quantification of LDH isoenzyme by disc electrophoresis. Anal. Biochem., 20 : 246-257. Helmes MH, Modia A, Moneim EL, Moustafae MS, Bale EL and Safinoz MEL. (1998). Clinical values of serum LDH, ceruloplasmin and lipid bound sialic acid in monitoring patients with malignant lymphomas. Medical Science Research, 26 : 613-617. Iuvone, T., Esposito, G., Capasso, F., and Izzo, A. A. (2003). Induction of nitric oxide synthase expression by Withania somnifera in macrophages. Life Sci, 72: 1617- 1625. Mathur, R., Gupta, S. K., Singh, N., Mathur, S., Kochupillai, V., and Velpandian, T.( 2006). Evaluation of the effect of Withania somnifera root extracts on cell cycle and angiogenesis. J Ethnopharmacol, 105: 336-341. Millikan R, De Voto E, Newman B. and Savitz D. (1995). Studying environmental influences and breast cancer risk: suggestions for an integrated population based approach. Br.Cancer Res.Treat., 35: 79-89. Mohan, R., Hammers, H. J., Bargagna-Mohan, P., Zhan, X. H., Herbstritt, C. J., Ruiz, A., Zhang, L., Hanson, A. D., Conner, B. P., Rougas, J., and Pribluda, V. S.( 2004). Withaferin A is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis, 7: 115-122. Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay, Raymond L, and Young J. (1997). Cancer incidence in five continents. Volume VIII.IARC. Scientific Publications, 143 IARC, Lyon, 858-1009. Rasool, M. and Varalakshmi, P.( 2003). Immunomodulatory role of Withania somnifera root powder on experimental induced inflammation: An in vivo and in vitro study. Vascul Pharmacol, 44: 406-410. Saija A, Scalese M, Lanza M, Marzullo D, Bonina F. and Castelli F. (1995). Flavanoids as antioxidant agents: Importance of their interactions with biomembranes. Free Rad.Biol.Med., 19: 481-486. Sandhya Mishra DC, Sharma and Praveen Sharma. (2004). Studies of Biochemical parameters in breast cancer with and without metastasis. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 19(1) : 71 – 75. Sanghvi LD. (1998). Report on cancer epidemiology. Indian association of cancer research. 1-28. Schwartz MK. (1973). Enzymes in cancer (review ). Clin.Chem., 19: 10-22. Sinha R, Anderson DE, Mc Donald SS. and Greenwald P. (2003). Cancer risk and diet in India. 49(33) : 222-228.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Tension in Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night Essay -- Do Not Go G

Tension in Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good   Night  Ã‚   Dylan Thomas’s poem "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good   Night", is an urgent plea from Thomas to his dying father, and all men not to give in to death.   Thomas uses himself as the speaker to the make the poem more personal.   The message of the poem is very inspirational.   Throughout the poem, Thomas uses different imagery and language to illustrate the tension between action and inaction.   The first stanza helps summarizes the meaning of the poem, urging old men to fight death.   In the first stanza of the poem Thomas uses assonance, †Old age should burn and rave at close of day; / Rage, rage against the dying of the light.† (2-3) The use of age in the second line, and rage twice in the third depict assonance.   Here Thomas is trying to disprove the notion that old age is a time to rest, and a time to look back with wishful regrets on one’s experiences. The middle four stanzas are examples of various types of men, their trials of life and the whisper of death upon them.   In ...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Inquiring Minds Want to Know Essay

Abstract This paper defines Penton Media’s sampling plan and research design for their study on if their reader service cards are still successful in getting buyer’s attentions. There are five questions that develop the sampling plan and Penton Media’s answers to these questions are described in this paper along with the strengths and weaknesses of their decisions. Their research design is also explained in the eight categories given. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of their research design are given. Case Assignment 2 Penton Media has designed a research study to determine if the reader service cards are still a sustainable form of bringing in customers. Penton Media came up with a sampling plan in order answer this research plan. Their sampling plan answered five questions and has both strengths and weaknesses. They also formulated a research design, which includes eight categories of options to answer their research question. Their research design also includes strengths and weaknesses, and these will be further examined in this paper. Sampling Plan According to Cooper and Schindler (2014), the sampling plan includes five questions. These questions include (p. 344): What is the target population? What are the parameters of interest? What is the sampling frame? What is the appropriate sampling method? What size sample is needed? Once you have answered all these questions, you can determine the appropriate sampling design for your study. Penton Media has created their sampling plan from these questions. The target population for Penton Media’s study is the people who read their  business magazines. Their subscribers consist of 1.7 mission people in the US, so they originally tested out the survey via phone with a small selection of subscribers. They then sent out a second preliminary survey to 300 subscribers. From the first and second surveys, they construed a final survey and mailed it out to 4,000 of their business subscribers. From the total number of surveys sent out, they received 710 completed surveys. The parameters of interest in this study include the readers who are actually buyers for their company. Penton Media only chose to use the surveys from subscribers actually doing purchasing activities, so this would be considered a non-probability based sampling study. According to the case study presented by Cooper and Schindler (2014), â€Å"The survey sample was constructed using stratified disproportionate random sampling with subscribers considered as belonging to one of 42 cells (seven industry groups by six job titles)†. Strengths The strengths with Penton Media’s sampling plan include the parameters of interest and sampling frame. Their parameters of interest focus on the group of readers whose job is to buy for their company. Since this group of people directly match who they should be targeting, Penton Media is on the right track. Their sampling frame is also precise because it narrowed their list of people to send out the surveys to people working in the business fields as decision makers. Weaknesses The weakness of this study is the sample size. Penton Media chose to only send out 4,000 surveys when they actually have 1.7 million readers. This size seems small since only a little over 17% of the surveyor’s returned the survey. Sample size should be a representation of the whole, and .04% of the population isn’t a great representation. Research Design Several options are available to researchers when deciding with their research design will be. They include exploratory or formal studies, type of data gathering, extent of control, purpose, time frame, scope, environment, and perception. A researcher should ponder these options before designing their study. Penton Media was deliberate in their choices and based their answers to research design options on their research question. A formal study was designed to provide the answer to directly answer their research question. For data gathering, a communication study was used in the form of a survey. Ex post facto extent of control was used since Penton Media can’t change the results and have to report the results they receive. The purpose was chosen as a reporting study as they are compiling data and providing a summary of the survey results. This study’s time frame is cross-sectional with a survey being sent out once for the formal results. The topical scope is statistical because it wants to compare characteristics and draw conclusions. Field conditions were used in this study because there is no change in the surveyor’s environment. Finally, the participant’s perceptions are not changed and they are aware of the research being conducted. Strengths The strength of this study is in the ex post facto design where Penton Media has to report from the survey results. There is no way that Penton Media can change or modify the results so this makes the research more reliable and dependable. Another strength is that the participant’s environment and perceptions aren’t changed or affected. This makes for more honest and trustworthy results. Weaknesses A communication study is great for the research question that Penton Media is trying to answer. However, they could also get more data from their advertisers. Since many companies keep a record of how a customer finds out about their company, it would be worthwhile to also get statistics from them. This would complete the study and bring more results to complete the research question. Conclusion Penton Media has made some good decisions regarding their sampling plan and research design. They have answered the five questions to determine how they should set up their sample and made good decisions on target population, parameters of interest, sampling frame and method. However, they should have chosen a large sample size to represent the population.  Penton Media also made good choices in their research design. Their choice of a formal, communication, reporting, statistical study with ex post factor design, cross-sectional time frame, field conditions and unchanged perceptions are key to their success. Sampling plan and research design are key and Penton Media certainly made good decisions for their study. References Cooper, Donald R. and Schindler, Pamela S. Business Research Methods. New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 2014. Print.